50 years to the day after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the United States has made progress on many issues close to his heart: health program, discrimination, space exploration …
There are 50 years to the day, November 22, 1963, the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy upset the United States. During his brief tenure, from 1960 to 1963, JFK spoke of many issues important to the United States, five decades later, what has become of these major projects?
Discrimination, a nagging feeling
The fight against discrimination was one of the commitments President Kennedy . In June 1963, a draft civil rights addressed the Congress to prohibit discrimination in public places, jobs, schools or on the electoral lists. According to a survey of the institute Gallup , 42% of Americans surveyed in 1964 felt that relations between blacks and whites posed and still pose a problem in the United States. 40% of Americans have the same opinion in 2013.
50 years after Martin Luther King speech , discrimination is still a problem for black Americans: 60% of them feel they have fewer opportunities than whites in the labor market, they were 74% in 1963 course. , The United States elected its first black president. But at the same time, some states led by conservatives, reduce welfare and fight the affirmative action , support for minorities in government and universities.
The space program, but without further human
Our nation must commit to land humans on the moon and bring him safely to Earth before the end of the decade. . JFK introduced the space program of the United States in 1960 deploring the lead taken by the Russians in space, in 1961 he launched the Apollo program NASA: 11 years later, the first man to set foot on the lunar surface is U.S..
Today, exploration continues on Mars. NASA did land the Curiosity robot August 12, 2012, which scans the red planet. But men are now on Earth: Barack Obama announces the arrest of manned space programs in 2010, responding to economic logic and security.
The nuclear weapons at the heart of debates
Defense, the mandate of John Fitzgerald Kennedy was marked by the Cold War. At the time, one of the enemies is called Ariel Castro , an ally of Russia: the Americans are trying to overthrow in 1961, and pose one of the milestones of the conflict. From 14 to 28 October 1962, the Cuban missile crisis carries the voltage at its peak. Kennedy favored direct military action. The situation threatens to turn to nuclear war before being defused in extremis . The following year, JFK signed with his Russian and British counterparts Treaty Partial Test Ban limiting nuclear testing in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water.
50 years later, the United States and many other countries have ratified the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. But the question is still debated by the international community. The five members of the Security Council plus Germany resumed on Wednesday the negotiations on the Iranian nuclear . Despite the opening of the new president Hassan Rohani , the major powers suspect Tehran of wanting to develop a nuclear weapons capability still destabilize the region. The end of the missile crisis is considered a political success for the United States; 50 years later, Barack Obama could shine with the Iranian nuclear
Wage inequality is always present
The Equal Pay Act , passed in 1963, makes it unlawful sex discrimination in the labor market. Line of sight, the large wage differentials between men and women: in 1960, a woman earned about 50% of the salary of a man working full-time, depending on United States Census Bureau . In 2010, this percentage was 81%.
The wage gap between blacks and whites was reduced but still present: in the 1960s, a black man earned an average of 55.5% of the salary of a white man. In 1980, this percentage had risen to 68%, but the Bureau of Labor Statistics moderates this social progress: the integration of Hispanics in the white man has lowered its average wage. In 2012, a black man earned on average 75% of the salary of a white man (including Hispanic).
Medicare, increased strength
The spring of 1962, Kennedy embarked on an ambitious project: Medicare, health insurance for people over 65. But Congress, yet Democratic majority, vote against, under the freedom to treat or not. Medicare and Medicaid, a health program for those most poor-will end in 1965. According to a 1964 survey , 61% of Americans favored Medicare.
Both systems have expanded over the decades. They are now complemented by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, known as Obamacare : the reform of Medicare should allow all Americans to benefit from social security, a desire of President Obama long opposed by the Congress , with the same arguments at the time Kennedy. According to a study Gallup , 55% of Americans now have an unfavorable opinion on this law.